Lev Nikolayevich Gumilyov was a Soviet historian, ethnologist, anthropologist and translator from Persian. He had a reputation for his highly non-orthodox theories of ethnogenesis . Москва: Наука. The Hsiung-nu in China (); Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of Earth (); Ancient Rus and the Great Steppe (). This chapter discusses Gumilev’s theory of ethnogenesis. Generally speaking, ethnogenesis proceeded in the following manner. At certain historical moments. Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of Earth has 98 ratings and 9 reviews.

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The influence of spontaneous social development on the molding of an ethnos is exogenous. According to this idea, when the steppe areas shrank drastically, the ethnogenesi of Central Asia began moving to the fertile pastures of Europe or China.

But perhaps ‘ethnos’ is simply a social category that takes shape with the formation of a society. History is the study of processes taking place in time, but what that time is nobody knows.

As will be seen from this example, the system of successive approximations is a complicated business, even when we are investigating a local episode. It is also remote in content from the Iranian ‘shahr’ or the above-mentioned term ‘horde’. The Nature of Historical Tye.

Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere

When a people has lived for a long time in its homeland it seems to its members that their mode of life, manners of behaviour, tastes, opinions, and social relationships, that is to say everything that is now called the ‘stereotype of behaviour’, are the only possible and correct ones. And those who are taken for Tanguts are nomadic Tibetans, a relict ethnos who were once the most savage enemies of the Tanguts.

And although both these ‘histories’ are closely interwoven and interconnected, scientific analysis calls for refining the angle of vision, i.

No trivia or quizzes yet. Everything was seething and in full swing; everything was being rapidly ruined and renewed, but the now wary cosmic observer declined to predict what would come of it.

Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere of Earth by Lev Nikolaevich Gumilev

Publications Pages Publications Pages. Some time passed before it was asked whether it was ethnogebesis better ethbogenesis adapt oneself to the aborigines than to exterminate them. My library Help Advanced Book Search. For some reason torrents of blood were spilled at the beginning of the nineteenth xnd only in order for war-torn Latin America to fall into the hands of trading companies of Great Britain and the USA.

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White Sea Russians, Petersburg workers, Transvolga Old Believers, Siberian gold prospectors, peasants of the forest provinces and peasants of the steppes, the Don and Ural Cossacks were outwardly quite unlike one another, but that did not disrupt the folk unity, while the closeness of the everyday life of the Greben Cossacks and the Chechens did not unite them.

Thus we know that time, as a category, exists, but unless we see its limits we have no chance of giving a generally accepted definition of time.

Lev Gumilev. Ethnogenesis and the Biosphere

Furthermore it has received unexpected confirmation, and that obliges me to continue the examination of an ethnos’s patterns of development, but now with allowance for the dynamic moment, the development of new ethnoi, i. To describe the genesis and evolution of ethnic groupsGumilyov introduced the concept of “passionarity”, meaning the level of activity to expand typical for an ethnic group, and especially for their leaders, at the given moment of time. Banal Eurocentrism is sufficient for Philistine perception but not suitable for scientific comprehension of the diversity of the observed phenomena.

This country was very well known to Chinese, Greek, and Arab geographers; it was visited by Russian and West European travelers; archaeological excavations have been carried out in it many times; and everyone called it descriptively someway or other, but it did not have a name of its own.

But it has not always been so. Or rather each human being is simultaneously a member of a society and a representative of an ethnic national group, but these two concepts are incommensurable and lie on different planes, like length and weight, for example, or a degree of heat and an electrical charge.

Let me try an old dodge-an image-and may the reader forgive me for beginning a scientific treatise with a lyrical digression.

That alone indicates that ethnogenesis is not a social process, because spontaneous development of the sociosphere only interacts with natural phenomena, but is not a product of them.

Feeling themselves isolated the Parthians thirstily drank in the philosophy of Hellenism, the teaching of the Indian Buddhist monks, and the preaching of the first apostles of Christianity but, equally with these strange ideologies, esteemed the Indian cult of holy fire and the Bactrian teaching of Zarathustra about the eternal struggle of Good and Evil – of Ormuzd and Ahriman. Traditions inherited from ancestors and traditional enmity or friendship with neighbors the ethnic environment play their role; cultural influences and religion have their significance, but in addition to all that there is the law of evolution or development, which applies to ethnoi just like other phenomena of nature.

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Feeling or sensation consequently underlies the ethnic diagnostic. They slaughter the Slavs on the banks of the Elbe and the Prussians on the shores of the Baltic. In order to affect the forming or the break-up of an ethnos, social development operates through history, both political and cultural.

It is important to know whether the proud tower of Iran rises high, and whether the golden palace of Byzantium has fallen to pieces? Let us examine this.

The demands of the new forms of communal existence with foreign peoples, together with the challenges of adapting to unfamiliar environmental conditions, led to the development of novel patterns of social and environmental interactions and laid the basis for a new behavioral stereotype.

It was frightening for me at first because he was ghostly, but then we talked, and he told me many interesting things about the history of the Khazars and their times. There was a certain confusion in that fraught with sorry consequences. Inna rated it really liked it Aug 08, In its broad sense ‘social category’ can be extended to stable institutions, the state, for example, or church organization, the polis in Hellasor the fief.

If, however, we look at all world history, we will note that coincidences of changes of formation and the appearance of new peoples are only rare exceptions, while ethnoi very dissimilar to one another constantly arise and develop within a formation.